This article is contributed. See the original author and article here.
This blog is co-authored with Shaofei Zhang, Xi Wang, Lei He, Sheng Zhao
Azure Neural Text-to-Speech (Neural TTS) has made rapid progress in speech quality, with voice models closely mirror natural speech at the sentence level (see more details here). However, in the real-life scenarios, TTS is used not just to read out single sentences but content within a long-form context such as paragraphs in web pages, audiobooks, or video subtitles.
In general, TTS synthesis generates paragraph or long-form audios by sentence. After each sentence is synthesized, they are concatenated together into paragraphs. Sentence-level speech synthesis only takes account of the single sentence information, with no consideration of the content before or after that sentence, even in the long-form context. The sentence generated with this approach would sound the same no matter how its context changes in paragraphs. As we know, scenarios like audiobooks or web content read-aloud usually consist of many paragraphs with context. Listeners usually expect that synthesized sentences in different contexts should sound dynamic in the pitch, rhythm, intonation, etc. in such scenarios so it creates a sense of coherence between sentences. Without the contextual information taken into the model, the sentence-level synthetic voices can be more monotone and less expressive, leading the listeners to feel less engaged.
In this blog, we introduce a new technical innovation that considers contextual information to model TTS voices for paragraph or long-form content reading. This new technology significantly improves the coherence and expressiveness when generating long audios, using Paragraph MOS (Mean Opinion Score) as metrics. With this new technology, we are glad to announce the public preview of Roger, a contextual voice model in English (US), to enable customers to generate more expressive and natural-sounding long-form audio content using Azure Neural TTS service.
Introducing Roger: the new contextual voice model
Roger is a voice that understands the paragraph content and automatically identifies the context for each sentence. Hence, he can adjust the pitch, rhythm, and intonation along with the context, and insert natural pauses as needed when reading paragraphs.
Listen to the samples below and hear how Roger expressively read paragraphs. Samples generated using the same voice’s sentence-level model are also provided as a baseline so you can compare how they differ in pause, intonation, rhythm, etc. inside and cross sentences.
Table 1: samples from Roger (sentence-level voice model as a baseline)
A druid was a man of mystery and power, respected by all save the most arrogant churchmen and lords. ” Why have we been brought here, druid? ” Farrel asked. ” No doubt we will learn that in time, ” Valin said. ” But I sense our circle is not yet complete. Look, another joins us. ” With his short wooden wand he gestured down the hill, to where a maiden was stepping among the fallen stones. She wore a gown of white linen, loose and frayed.
Many others were asking different questions. Questions like “if they made it, why are they still sending people out?” and “I’m next, I don’t want to go, what’s down there?” float through our minds like clouds. Even as hushed whispers begin to break the silence, my Squad remains silent.
He then gazed at every soldier on that trench giving each of them a nod.” Do and die boys, do and die!” The twenty eight repeated the chant as the sound of the ghastly GEOMs began to resound.” Do and Die!” their voices drowning the GEOM swarm, taunting the monsters to finish them off.
With the integration of contextual information, the generated speech sounds more expressive and coherent in terms of the prosody inside sentence and cross sentences, and for the content that is very rich and expressive, the audio from contextual model is more stable and natural.
The technology behind
In this section, we describe the technology behind the new contextual voice model and introduce how we integrate contextual information into neural TTS voice modeling and build the text-based contextual encoder for long-form audio generation, followed by the quality benefit measurement.
Integrating contextual information to neural TTS modeling
Given the same sentence with different context, the prosody of the generated speech could be different. Based on this concept, we use a text-based contextual encoder to extract the contextual information from paragraph text and use this information as a condition on the current sentence’s phoneme embedding to relieve one-to-many problems in the conventional TTS. To model long-form context, the long-form data such as paragraph text and paragraph-level voice samples are needed. As shown in Figure 1, we bring the phoneme embedding and contextual information from text-based contextual encoder together and then go through the same sentence level modeling process to generate the mel-spectrograms for audio waves.
Text-based contextual encoder
As shown in Figure 2, we use two branches to extract phoneme level and sequence level semantic and syntax information separately. Given a paragraph text, a token-level statistics extractor is used to calculate the syntactic information which covers the correlation among token, sentence, and paragraph. For each sentence centered in a predefined range of context, we use a pretrained model to extract the token-level semantic context embedding derived as current sentence token embedding and context sentence token embedding.
For the phoneme-level information extraction branch, token-level embedding of current sentence and statistical features will be concatenated and then go through a phoneme level contextual encoder to up-sample and encode to phoneme level contextual embedding.
For the sequence-level information extraction branch, context sentence token embedding will go through a sequence-level contextual encoder to do some pooling and be encoded to a contextual representation which not only contains current but also historical and future information. Then these two-level contextual features will be combined as the final contextual information.
We conducted a 10-point scale paragraph MOS to measure the voice quality of the proposed contextual model. The difference between paragraph MOS and general sentence MOS is mainly in two aspects: 1) the audios tested and cases for judgement are paragraphs, not single sentences; 2) The testers are asked not only to focus on the voice quality of a single sentence, but also the coherence cross sentences.
In this paragraph MOS test, we prepared 30 paragraphs including conversations and narrations from 10 genre novels for each TTS system (sentence-level model and contextual model), and 7 paragraphs for human recordings. 20 native speakers listened to the given audios and gave a score on a 10-point scale according to the overall impression (see table 2 for the definition of overall impression), along with some specific metrics, including naturalness, pleasantness, speech pause, stress, intonation, emotion, style matchiness and listening effort etc.
Table 2: Metric Definition of Paragraph MOS
How is your overall impression on this content reading, considering the inside and cross sentences? Consider if the voice is clear, natural, expressive, easy to understand and pleasant to listen to.
Paragraph MOS result shows that the contextual model significantly reduces the paragraph MOS gap with recording from -0.2 (sentence-level model) to -0.06 (contextual model), which is around 70% paragraph MOS reduction, and closely mirror human speech at the paragraph level.
Here are samples from contextual model and human recording for your reference.
Table 3: Samples from contextual model vs. human recording
It was two stories high; showed no windows, nothing but a door on the lower story, and a blind forehead of a discolored wall, on the upper; the bore in every feature, the marks of prolonged and sordid negligence. The door, which was equipped with neither bell nor knocker, was blistered and distained. Tramps slouched in the recess and struck matches on the panels; children kept shop upon the steps; the schoolboy had tried his knife on the moldings; and for close on a generation no one had appeared to drive away these random visitors or to repair their ravages. Mr. Enfield and the lawyer were on the other side of the by-street; but when they came abreast at the entry, the former lifted up his cane and pointed. ” Did you ever remark that door? ” He asked; and when his companion had replied in the affirmative, ” It is connected in my mind, ” added he, ” with a very odd story. ” ” Indeed? ” Said Mr. Utterson, with a slight change of voice, ” and what was that? “
How to use it
With the above contextual modeling, an en-US voice (RogerNeural) is released to Azure TTS platform. You can find voice samples and sample code from Voice Gallery. Non developers can also create audio content directly without writing a single line of code, using our audio content creation tool. It’s recommended that long-form context (such as paragraph text, not single sentence) should be provided as text input when using Roger to generate audio content.
Neural Text-to-Speech (Neural TTS), a powerful speech synthesis capability of Azure Cognitive Services, enables users to convert text to lifelike speech. It can be used in various scenarios including voice assistant, content read-aloud capabilities, accessibility tools, and more. Azure Neural TTS has been integrated into many Microsoft Flag products, such as Edge Read Aloud, Word Read Aloud, Outlook Read Aloud etc. It’s also been adopted by many customers, such as AT&T, Duolingo, Progressive, and more. Up to now, 140 languages and variants are supported in Azure TTS, user can choose from more than 400 pre-set voices or use our Custom Neural Voice service to create their voice instead.
To explore the capabilities of Neural TTS with its different voice offerings, try the demo.
For more information:
- Read our documentation
- Check out our quickstarts
- Check out the code of conduct for integrating Neural TTS into your apps.
Brought to you by Dr. Ware, Microsoft Office 365 Silver Partner, Charleston SC.